Friday, 25 November 2016

MEASURES TO CONTROL CORRUPTIONS

MEASURES TO CONTROL CORRUPTIONS


1.      What is corruption?
2.      What are the various types of corruption?
3.      What is transparency?
9.      Can corruption stop in our society?

1.      What is CORRUPTION?

Generally speaking as “the abuse of entrusted power for private gain”. Corruption can be classified as grand, petty and political, depending on the amounts of money lost and the sector where it occurs.
Grand corruption consists of acts committed at a high level of government that distort policies or the central functioning of the state, enabling leaders to benefit at the expense of the public good.
Petty corruption refers to everyday abuse of entrusted power by low- and mid-level public officials in their interactions with ordinary citizens, who often are trying to access basic goods or services in places like hospitals, schools, police departments and other agencies.
Political corruption is a manipulation of policies, institutions and rules of procedure in the allocation of resources and financing by political decision makers, who abuse their position to sustain their power, status and wealth. 
2. WHAT ARE THE VARİOUS TYPES OF CORRUPTİON?

BRIBERY: An offer of money or favors to influence a public official.
 NEPOTISM: Favoritism shown by public officials to relatives or close friends.
 FRAUD: Cheating the government through deceit.
 EMBEZZLEMENT: Stealing money or other government property

3. WHAT IS TRANSPARENCY?

Transparency is about shedding light on rules, plans, processes and actions. It is knowing why, how, what, and how much. Transparency ensures that public officials, civil servants, managers, board members and businessmen act visibly and understandably, and report on their activities. And it means that the general public can hold them to account. It is the surest way of guarding against corruption, and helps increase trust in the people and institutions on which our futures depend.


Our three guiding principles are: build partnerships, proceed step-by-step, and stay non-confrontational. We have learned from experience that corruption can only be kept in check if representatives from government, business and civil society work together to develop standards and procedures they all support. We also know that corruption can’t be rooted out in one big sweep. Rather, fighting it is a step-by-step, project-by-project process. Our non-confrontational approach is necessary to get all relevant parties around the negotiating table.

5.      WHAT ARE THE COSTS OF CORRUPTION?

Corruption impacts societies in a multitude of ways. In the worst cases, it costs lives. Short of this, it costs people their freedom, health, or money. The cost of corruption can be divided into four main categories: political, economic, social, and environmental.
·         On the political front, corruption is a major obstacle to democracy and the rule of law. In a democratic system, offices and institutions lose their legitimacy when they’re misused for private advantage. This is harmful in established democracies, but even more so in newly emerging ones. It is extremely challenging to develop accountable political leadership in a corrupt climate.
·         Economically, corruption depletes national wealth. Corrupt politicians invest scarce public resources in projects that will line their pockets rather than benefit communities, and prioritise high-profile projects such as dams, power plants, pipelines and refineries over less spectacular but more urgent infrastructure projects such as schools, hospitals and roads. Corruption also hinders the development of fair market structures and distorts competition, which in turn deters investment.
·         Corruption corrodes the social fabric of society. It undermines people's trust in the political system, in its institutions and its leadership. A distrustful or apathetic public can then become yet another hurdle to challenging corruption.
·         Environmental degradation is another consequence of corrupt systems. The lack of, or non-enforcement of, environmental regulations and legislation means that precious natural resources are carelessly exploited, and entire ecological systems are ravaged. From mining, to logging, to carbon offsets, companies across the globe continue to pay bribes in return for unrestricted destruction.

6.      HOW CAN YOU MEASURE CORRUPTION?

 Due to its nature, the scale of corruption is impossible to measure with complete accuracy. But there are informed estimates available, and Transparency International regularly publishes a number of assessments, surveys and indices which measure corruption:
CORRUPTION PERCEPTIONS INDEX
TI’s Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is the best known of our tools (see animation above). First launched in 1995 it has been widely credited with putting the issue of corruption on the international policy agenda. The 2011 CPI measures the perceived levels of public sector corruption in 183 countries and territories around the world.
GLOBAL CORRUPTION BAROMETER
The Global Corruption Barometer is the only world-wide public opinion survey on corruption
BRIBE PAYERS INDEX
The 2011 Bribe Payers Index (BPI) ranks the likelihood of companies from 28 leading economies to win resources-resources-business abroad by paying bribes.
PROMOTING REVENUE TRANSPARENCY
The 2011 Report on Oil and Gas Companies which is based on research conducted in 2010 and is an expanded version of a report published in 2008, rates 44 companies on the public availability of information on their anti-corruption programmes and how they report their financial results in all the countries where they operate.
TRANSPARENCY IN CORPORATE REPORTING
This study analyses the transparency of corporate reporting on a range of anticorruption measures among the 105 largest publicly listed multinational companies. Together these companies are worth more than US$11 trillion and touch the lives of people in countries across the globe wielding enormous and far reaching power.
DEFENCE COMPANIES ANTI-CORRUPTION INDEX 2012 (CI)
The CI analyses anti-corruption and compliance systems in 129 defence companies around. The next iteration to be published in spring 2015, will cover more than 160 defence companies.
GOVERNMENT DEFENCE ANTI-CORRUPTION INDEX 2013 (GI)
The GI measures the risk of corruption in 82 national defence establishments around the world. The next iteration, to be published in spring 2015, will cover more than 130 countries, including all of Africa.

7.      WHAT KIND OF ENVIRONMENT DOES CORRUPTION THRIVE IN?

Corruption thrives where temptation meets permissiveness: where institutional checks on power are missing, where decision making is opaque, where civil society is disempowered. It is therefore important to establish control mechanisms and systemic hurdles to prevent people from abusing their power.

8. CAN CORRUPTION BE SEEN AS NORMAL OR TRADITIONAL IN SOME SOCIETIES?

While there are varying norms and traditions in terms of giving and accepting gifts around the world, clearly the abuse of power for personal gain -the siphoning off of public or common resources into private pockets- is unacceptable in all cultures and societies. This is confirmed by our Global Corruption Barometer survey, which analyses people’s views and experiences of corruption in more than 60 countries. The forms and causes of corruption vary across countries, however, meaning that the best ways to address it differ too. This is why our approach to fighting corruption is grounded in our system of national chapters, which are run by people who are anchored in their societies and are therefore in the best position to understand and tackle corruption in their respective countries.


9.CAN CORRUPTİON STOP İN OUR SOCİETY?

Corruption is a habit and hence everyone who is in the position are susceptible to it.
There are people who are ready to compete for those jobs with greater chances of corruption.
And those who don’t have the chance, expect to minimize the corruption and keep complaining about it.
But prevention and eradication of corruption is an absolute requirement for better public life. This corruption takes an interesting turn in such a way that everyone becomes corrupt in some other sort if situation permits. The below mentioned tips are written from perspective of corruption in India.
Yet corruption is prevalent in all the countries in some or other ways.
This is because of the thieves of state who are not interested in how to stop corruption.

Tips on how to stop corruption and prevent it
1. Give better salary in govt jobs: Many employees in government positions receive low salary like clerks, office staff etc. Hence they expect to make money by bribery. For this they try to delay the work for so long that the client is fed up and opts for bribery for progress in the work. So low salary is one of the reasons for corruption. To curb this their salaries should be raised periodically.
2. Increase the number of workers: In many offices of the government sector, the work load has gone up drastically but the recruitment of vacancies has declined  This gives an option for delaying the work by officials and expect monetary or other benefits for faster completion.
3. Law to dismiss from service if found to be involved in corruption.  This seems a better option. For instance if you see  cases where anti-corruption bureau rides an officers home and finds disproportionate assets, the officer is suspended from employment and taken for judicial trials. But after couple of years you will find them in employment at same or even better positions. So this creates no fear among the officials against corruption.
4. Keep transactions online and provide bill for every purchase: Many of them do not pay taxes and escape  This involves corruption. Making payments online through bank accounts and provision of bills for every transaction involving money. This is a better corruption watch.
In other words, public should opt for cashless transactions where possible. This will limits the corruption related to money.
5. Camera in most govt offices: In every ATM there are camera to keep a watch on the public taking their money. Then why not government offices have cameras to have a watch on the employ performance. Even there are many employ’s who openly take bribe in presence of common men. This public bribery is due to confidence that public wants their work more than the amount they are paying to them as bribes.
6. Speed up the work process in govt institutes: Most corporate offices are in full fledged running by 8-9 am. But the government offices start by 10 to 11 am and wind up by 3.30 to 4 pm with a lunch break of one & half hour in between. This indicates how much of commitment lies in the work and how fast the work goes on. If there are mistakes in the work or delay in the work, civilians have to run behind those workers to rectify or complete the work. In doing so they pay bribes to get the work done. This makes the chances of corruption more or else work is not done. So there should be accountability of daily work done in government works and targets to complete the work on time basis. Or else instead of being public servants, they tend to act as public bosses.
7. Make Media responsible and fix laws to be so: There are many major scams and corruption events involving media. Though the media is well aware of the corruption happening they stay silent due to their support for some political parties or else their owners get some monetary benefits from the rulers. Even there are many reporters who though come across some scam or corruption, they stay silent without revealing it for press for having received monetary benefits to do so. If media personnel are found to be guilty for not having exposed the scam or corruption intentionally, they have to be prosecuted and their license be withdrawn.
8. Verify the selection procedures: Many people compete for government jobs and in the process there are corruption happening in the selection of candidates for the posts. So let the selection criteria and procedure used be transparent and any misconduct from this should be punishable.
Also while allotment of natural resources for business companies, the selection of bids should be transparent. There should be online details with regards to the benefit to the government, the purchase price and even benefit to the company out of the deals. This will limit the corruption related to quid pro quo.
9. Keep inflation low: This is another factor for keeping corruption high and also persistent. Due to rise in prices, any amount of income seems to be insufficient. This inflation is a corruption involving politicians and businessmen. Businessmen try to rise the prices to sell their inventory or stock of goods at higher price. For this the politicians support them and are paid monetary or other benefits. This is a cheap business tactic but even the so called richest business magnets play this corruption game.
10. Speed up the judgment and increase the courts: Many cases of corruption take years to be given verdict. This delay in cases creates lack of fear for being corrupt and also huge time span for court trials gives sufficient time to make alterations in the witness. Establishing fast track courts and giving severe punishment for corruption practice will keep a control on corruption.
Besides these there should be collective efforts from the public to prevent corruption.
If there is corruption for so long, it indicates even the people voting for their leaders do not consider this and vote based on fantasy or factors like religion etc.

Note: If you have any other methods which you think will work to stop corruption, kindly share them below.
Presented by:
Ayan Isse Farah Aser