Thursday, 7 July 2016

FIGHTING XENOPHOBIA

Presentation by CUSTODY CHIKAMBURE

Topic: FIGHTING XENOPHOBIA

About Custody



Custody Chikambure is a savvy entrepreneurial achiever who fosters and develops profitable financial scheme.He is an Influential interpersonal communicator, negotiator, and presenter who bring multicultural and trilingual (French-Shona-English) advantages in leveraging cross-functional relationships. Continually astounded by how interconnected our world is, he is grateful to work with Art of Giving's International team, where he helps connect companies, and their generous support, to nonprofits that are creating positive change in their local communities. Custody holds an Executive Diploma (PED) Program in Employee Development (CELBMD) Africa.
His country of birth & residence is Zimbabwe.He is currently enrolled at Univesité de Constantine (Bsc. Computer Sciences) and has over a decade post graduate experience in using Social Media for Social Good that communicate trends and impact to corporate partners, specializing in content management and search indexing.

Custody is a proud member of PAI  and the DEPUTY CHAIRPERSON OF SOUTHERN AFRICA REGION!

Introduction

Welcome to our discussion which is entitled XENOPHOBIA .As PAI, one of our goals is to advocate for peace throughout the globe. However, we have enemies of peace that we must fight, and one of these enemies is XENOPHOBIA. During this presentation, we are going to touch on issues that will help us tackle this problem especially in Africa.

Topic: Fighting Xenophobia


Definition of Xenophobia

Dictionary definitions of xenophobia include: "deep-rooted fear towards foreigners" (Oxford English Dictionary; OED), and "fear of the unfamiliar" (Webster's).The word comes from the Greek words ξένος (xenos), meaning "strange", "foreigner", and φόβος (phobos), meaning "fear".


Xenophobia is the fear of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.Xenophobia can manifest itself in many ways involving the relations and perceptions of an ingroup towards an outgroup, including a fear of losing identity, suspicion of its activities, aggression, and desire to eliminate its presence to secure a presumed purity.Xenophobia can also be exhibited in the form of an "uncritical exaltation of another culture" in which a culture is ascribed "an unreal, stereotyped and exotic quality".

Difference between Xenophobia and racism

Xenophobia and racism often overlap, but are distinct phenomena. Whereas racism usually entails distinction based on physical characteristic differences, such as skin colour, hair type, facial features, etc, xenophobia implies behaviour based on the idea that the other is foreign to or originates from outside the community or nation.

Because differences in physical characteristics are often taken to distinguish the 'other' from the common community, it is often difficult to differentiate between racism and xenophobia as motivations for behaviour. At the same time, expression of xenophobia may occur against people of identical physical characteristics when such people arrive, return or migrate to States or areas where occupants consider them outsiders.

Who are the victims?

1) Africans and people of African descent.

States must facilitate the participation of people of African descent in all political, economic, social and cultural aspects of society and in the advancement and economic development of their countries, and to promote a greater knowledge of and respect for their heritage and culture. 













2) Indigenous people.

States must adopt or continue to apply, in concert with them, constitutional, administrative, legislative, judicial and all necessary measures to promote, protect and ensure the enjoyment by indigenous peoples of their rights, as well as to guarantee them the exercise of their human rights and fundamental freedoms on the basis of equality, non-discrimination and full and free participation in all areas of society, in particular in matters affecting or concerning their interests.States need  to promote better knowledge of and respect for indigenous cultures and heritage; and welcomes measures already taken by States in these respects.

3) Migrants.

All States are requested to combat manifestations of a generalized rejection of migrants and actively to discourage all racist demonstrations and acts that generate xenophobic behaviour and negative sentiments towards, or rejection of, migrants.
They must  Invites  international and national non-governmental organizations to include monitoring  and protection  of  the  human  rights  of  migrants  in  their  programmes and activities and to sensitize Governments and increase public awareness in all States about the need to prevent racist acts and manifestations of discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance against migrants.
States need to promote and protect fully and effectively the human rights and fundamental freedoms of all migrants, in conformity with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and their obligations under international human rights instruments, regardless of the migrants’ immigration status.
States are also encouraged to promote education on the human rights of migrants and to engage in information campaigns to ensure that the public receives accurate information regarding migrants and migration issues, including the positive contribution of  migrants  to  the  host  society  and  the  vulnerability  of  migrants,  particularly  those  who are in an irregular situation.












4) Refugees.

States urged to comply with their obligations under international human rights, refugee and humanitarian law relating to refugees, asylum-seekers and displaced persons, and urges the international community to provide them with protection and assistance in an equitable manner and with due regard to their needs in different parts of the world, in keeping with principles of international solidarity, burden-sharing and international cooperation, to share responsibilities
Calls upon States to recognize the racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance that refugees may face as they endeavour to engage in the life of the societies of their host countries and encourages States, in accordance with their international obligations and commitments

5) Asians and people of Asian descent.

These people  face barriers as a result of social biases and discrimination prevailing in public and private  institutions  and we  express  our  commitment  to  work  towards  the  eradication  of all forms of racial discrimination , xenophobia and related intolerance faced by Asians and people of Asian descent;

Other victims

States are encouraged to take all possible measures to ensure that all persons, without any discrimination, are registered and have access to the necessary documentation reflecting  their  legal  identity  to  enable  them  to  benefit  from  available  legal  procedures, remedies and development opportunities, as well as to reduce the incidence of trafficking.



 States should recognizes that victims of trafficking are particularly exposed to racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.  States must  ensure that all measures taken against trafficking in persons, in particular those that affect the victims of such trafficking, are consistent with internationally recognized principles of nondiscrimination, including the prohibition of racial discrimination and the availability of appropriate legal redress;



What causes Xenophobia?

a) Slavery  and  the  slave  trade,  including the  transatlantic slave trade, were appalling tragedies in the history of humanity not only because of their abhorrent barbarism but also in terms of their magnitude, organized nature and especially their negation of the essence of the victims, and further acknowledge that slavery and the slave trade are a crime against humanity and should always have been so, especially the transatlantic slave trade and are among the major sources and manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, and that Africans and people of African descent, Asians and people of Asian descent and indigenous peoples were victims of these acts and continue to be victims of their consequences.

b)  It is recognized that colonialism has led to xenophobia and related intolerance, and that Africans and people of African descent, and people of Asian descent and indigenous peoples were victims of colonialism and continue to be victims of its consequences. We acknowledge the suffering caused by colonialism and affirm that, wherever and whenever it occurred, it must be condemned and its reoccurrence prevented.  We further regret that the effects and persistence of these structures and practices have been among the factors contributing to lasting social and economic inequalities in many parts of the world today. 

c) Apartheid and genocide in terms of international law constitute crimes against humanity and are major sources and manifestations of xenophobia and related intolerance, and acknowledge the untold evil and suffering caused by these acts and we must affirm that wherever and whenever they occurred, they must be condemned and their recurrence prevented.

Two causes are also put forward to explain the resurgence of xenophobic and racist movements towards the end of the twentieth century. The first cause is new migration patterns that have developed as an effect of the gradual internationalisation of the labour market during the postcolonial era. In the receiving countries, social groups in disfavourable position considered newcomers as competitors for jobs and public services. This cultivated a social and political climate that generated xenophobia and racism (i.e. defensive reactions against migrants), as well as nationalism (i.e. demands that the state provide better protection against foreigners for its own population). 

The second cause believed to reinforce xenophobia and racism is globalisation. Increased competition between states has led states to reduce their services in areas of social welfare, education and healthcare. This reduction influenced in particular the segments of the population living on the margins of society. These groups are often in direct competition with migrants for welfare service and are the main breeding ground for xenophobic and racist ideologies. Research has shown that severe economic inequalities and the marginalization of persons from access to basic economic and social conditions give rise to tensions and manifestations of racism and xenophobia . Those perceived to be outsiders or foreigners, often migrants, refugees, asylum-seekers, displaced persons, and non-nationals, are main targets. 

At the same time, xenophobic or racist reactions are not necessarily aggravated by the presence of a large number of immigrants. There are examples showing that social decline of specific groups and right-wing political organisations are sufficient preconditions for the emergence of xenophobia.

What are the effects of Xenophobia?

a) Deaths ( people are killed during protests )
b) Destruction of infrastructure
c) Can leave some victims with disability
d) Can lead to the collapse of a country's economy since labor is massively cut leading to decrease in revenues ...etc

Which countries are largely affected by Xenophobia specifically in Europe /Africa and how have they responded to it?

In EUROPE

2005-2009 Survey edition sources: The Economist


Country                                     percentage of xenophobia 

Germany.                                     36.50


France.                                         23, 80


Hungary.                                      18, 60



Ukraine.                                         16, 30


Romania.                                       13, 70


Poland.                                           13, 30

 In the 2005-2009 edition of the survey— the most recent one to include a wide range of Eastern and Western European countries—France still comes across as more xenophobic than many Eastern European countries. While a greater percentage of Hungarian respondents (24 percent) said they wouldn’t want to live near immigrants or foreign workers compared with German respondents (13 percent), French respondents proved the most hostile among European respondents to sharing their neighborhood with foreigners, at just over 36 percent.


In the survey which ran from 2010 to 2014 which didn’t include France or Hungary, the percentage of German respondents saying they wouldn’t want foreign workers or immigrants for neighbors climbed from 13 percent to 21 percent—higher than the percentage of respondents saying the same in the supposedly xenophobic Eastern European countries of Poland (7 percent) and Ukraine (19 percent), and around the same percentage as in Romania.


AFRICA

South Africa

March against xenophobia, Johannesburg, 23 April 2015

Xenophobia in South Africa

Xenophobia in South Africa has been present in both the apartheid and post–apartheid eras. Hostility between the British and Boers exacerbated by the Second Boer War led to rebellion by poor Afrikaners who looted British-owned shops.South Africa also passed numerous acts intended to keep out Indians, such as the Immigrants Regulation Act of 1913, which provided for the exclusion of "undesirables", a group of people that included Indians. This effectively halted Indian immigration. The Township Franchise Ordinance of 1924, Natal, was intended to "deprive Indians of municipal franchise."

In 1994 and 1995, gangs of armed youth destroyed the homes of foreign nationals living in Johannesburg, demanding that the police work to repatriate them to their home countries .In 2008, a widely documented spate of xenophobic attacks occurred in Johannesburg .It is estimated that tens of thousands of migrants were displaced; property, businesses and homes were widely looted.The death toll after the attack stood at 56.


In 2015, another widely documented series of xenophobic attacks occurred in South Africa, mostly against migrant Zimbabweans.This followed remarks by Zulu King Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu stating that the migrants should "pack their bags and leave". As of 20 April 2015, 7 people had died and more than 2000 foreigners had been displaced.



Actions taken to counteract Xenophobia in South Africa

The South African government took steps to bring the Xenophobia outbreak of attacks against foreign nationals in KwaZulu-Natal and Gauteng under control.

President Jacob Zuma cancelled a trip to Indonesia and visited refugee camps in Durban.

South African President Jacob Zuma hosted consultative meetings with representatives of business, labour, youth, creative industries, women, sports, social-development sector and others to discuss South Africa's migration policy. He also met leaders of organisations representing asylum seekers and refugees as well as the media.

Under discussion was about how society groups can work with government to promote orderly migration and good relations between citizens and other nationals.This would ensure that the shameful attacks on foreign nationals would not recur in the country.


Ministerial task team

The South African government established a ministerial task team to help stabilise the situation and spread the message that South Africa will not tolerate violence. The team comprised of ministers from the Justice Peace Crime Prevention and Security Cluster assisted by the ministers of Small Business Development, Trade and Industry and Social Development.


Refugee camps and reintegration

UNHCR tents at a refugee camp on Olifantsfontein, Midrand, and Johannesburg

After being housed in temporary places of safety (including police stations and community halls) for three weeks, those who fled the violence were moved into specially established temporary camps.Conditions in some camps were condemned on the grounds of location and infrastructure, highlighting their temporary nature.

The South African government initially adopted a policy of quickly reintegrating refugees into the communities they originally fled and subsequently set a deadline in July 2008, by which time refugees would be expected to return to their communities or countries of origin.After an apparent policy shift the government vowed that there would be no forced reintegration of refugees and that the victims would not be deported, even if they were found to be illegal immigrants.

In May 2009, one year after the attacks, the City of Cape Town said it would apply for an eviction order to force 461 remaining refugees to leave two refugee camps in that city.

Arrests

1 400 suspects were arrested in connection with the violence. Nine months after the attacks 128 individuals had been convicted and 30 found not guilty in 105 concluded court cases. 208 cases had been withdrawn and 156 were still being heard.

One year after the attacks prosecutors said that 137 people had been convicted, 182 cases had been withdrawn because witnesses or complainants had left the country, 51 cases were underway or ready for trial and 82 had been referred for further investigation.


In May 2009, one year after the attacks the Consortium for Refugees and Migrants in South Africa (Cormsa) said that foreigners remained under threat of violence and that little had been done to address the causes of the attacks. The organisation complained of a lack of accountability for those responsible for public violence, insufficient investigations into the instigators and the lack of a public government inquiry.



We are One Campaign.

In Durban, Police Minister launched the "We Are One Humanity" campaign, which aims to combat Afrophobia through celebrating diversity and embracing differences, create a new generation of Africans free of Afrophobia, and develop empathy through public education.

International reaction

The attacks were condemned by a wide variety of organisations and government leaders throughout Africa and the rest of the world.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees expressed concerns about the violence and urged the South African government to cease deportation of Zimbabwean nationals and also to allow the refugees and asylum seekers to regularise their stay in the country.

Malawi began repatriation of some of its nationals in South Africa. The Mozambican government sponsored a repatriation drive that saw the registration of at least 3 275 individuals.

What solutions can we offer to counteract Xenophobia?

a) States need to adopt and implement, at both the national and international levels, effective measures and policies, in addition to existing anti-discrimination national legislation and relevant international instruments and mechanisms, which encourage all citizens and institutions to take a stand against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, and to recognize, respect and maximize the benefits of diversity within and among all nations in working together to build a harmonious and productive future by putting into practice and promoting values and principles such as justice, equality and non-discrimination, democracy, fairness and friendship, tolerance and respect within and between communities and nations, in particular through public information and education programmes to raise awareness and understanding of the benefits  of  cultural  diversity,  including  programmes where  the  public  authorities  work in partnership with international and non-governmental organizations and other sectors of civil society.

b) States urged to mainstream a gender perspective in the design and development of measures of prevention, education and protection aimed at the eradication of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance at all levels, to ensure that they effectively target the distinct situations of women and men.

c) States are encouraged to adopt or strengthen, as appropriate, national programmes for eradicating poverty and reducing social exclusion which take account of the needs and experiences of individuals or groups of individuals who are victims of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, and also urges that they expand their efforts to foster bilateral, regional and international cooperation in implementing those programmes.

d) States are encouraged to work to ensure that their political and legal systems reflect the multicultural diversity within their societies and, where necessary, to improve democratic institutions so that they are more fully participatory and avoid marginalization, exclusion and discrimination against specific sectors of society.

e) States must take all necessary measures to address specifically, through policies and programmes, racism and racially motivated violence against women and girls  and  to  increase  cooperation,  policy  responses and effective  implementation  of national legislation and of their obligations under relevant international instruments, and  other  protective  and preventive  measures  aimed  at the  elimination of all  forms of racially motivated discrimination and violence against women and girls; 63.  Encourages  the business sector, in particular the tourist industry and Internet providers, to  develop  codes of  conduct,  with  a view to  preventing  trafficking in  persons and protecting the victims of such traffic, especially those in prostitution, against gender-based and racial discrimination and promoting their rights, dignity and security.

 f) States should devise, enforce and strengthen effective measures at the national, regional and international levels to prevent, combat and eliminate all forms of trafficking in women and children, in particular girls, through comprehensive anti trafficking strategies which include legislative measures, prevention campaigns and information exchange. It also urges States to allocate resources, as appropriate, to provide comprehensive programmes designed to provide assistance to, protection for, healing, reintegration into society and rehabilitation of victims.  States shall provide or strengthen training for law enforcement, immigration and other relevant officials who deal with victims of trafficking in this regard.

g) The  bodies, agencies and relevant  programmes  of the  United Nations  system  and  States  are also encouraged to  promote  and  to  make  use  of  the  Guiding  Principles  on Internal Displacement (E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2), particularly those provisions relating to non-discrimination in order to fight Xenophobia.

e) We must strongly  reject any  doctrine  of  racial  superiority,  along  with  theories  which attempt to determine the existence of so-called distinct human races.

As advocates for peace at PAI, what initiatives can we implement to fight this enemy of Peace?

1) Where appropriate PAI can work with other relevant bodies, to commit f financial resources to anti-xenophobia education and to media campaigns promoting the values of acceptance, tolerance, diversity and respect for the cultures of all indigenous peoples living within their national borders.  In particular,

2)  PAI should promote an accurate understanding of the histories and cultures of indigenous peoples in its member countries.

3) PAI should work  to redress the marginalization of Africa’s contribution to world history and civilization by developing and implementing a specific and comprehensive programme of  research,  education  and  mass  communication  to  disseminate  widely  a  balanced  and objective presentation of Africa’s seminal and valuable contribution to humanity.


4)As PAI ,we welcome  the  positive contribution made  by  the  new  information  and communications technologies, including the Internet, in combating xenophobia through rapid and wide-reaching communication .It draws attention  to the potential to increase the use of the new information and communications technologies, including the Internet, to create educational and awareness-raising networks against xenophobia and related  intolerance, both in and out of  school, as well as  the ability of the  Internet  to promote universal respect for human rights and also respect for the value of cultural diversity;

By Custody Chikambure